Current projects

LexCauc – A lexical database for the languages of the Caucasus Show content

Project leaders:
Prof. Dr. Diana Forker & Dr. Oleg Belyaev

PhD Student:
Ilya Chechuro will be an associated PhD student. He will start in October 2019 as a member of the IMPRS at the MPI-SHH Jena

Research assistants:
Felix Anker
Tamar Khutsishvili
Elguja Dadunashvili

Funding:
BMBF Kleine Fächer, große Potenziale (2017–2020)


Cooperation partners and language experts

  • Department of Linguistic and Cultural Evolution at the MPI for the Science of Human History, Jena (DLCE)
  • Felix Anker (FSU Jena)
  • Ayten Babaliyeva, Baku
  • Viacheslav Chirikba (University of Suchum)
  • Marina Chumakina (University of Surrey)
  • Elguja Dandunashvili (FSU Jena)
  • Mikhail Daniel (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Linguistic Convergence Laboratory, Moscow)
  • Nina Dobrushina (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Linguistic Convergence Laboratory, Moscow)
  • Konstantin Filatov (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Linguistic Convergence Laboratory, Moscow)
  • Dmitrii Ganenkov (University of Bamberg & Humboldt University of Berlin)
  • Zaira Khalilova (Russian Academy of Science, Makhachkala & Moscow)
  • Solmaz Merdanova (Russian Academy of Science, Moscow)
  • Zarina Molochieva (University of Kiel)
  • George Moroz (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Linguistic Convergence Laboratory, Moscow)
  • Rasul Mutalov (Russian Academy of Science, Moscow)
  • Monika Rind-Pawlowski (University of Frankfurt)
  • Kristian Roncero (MPI-SHH & FSU Jena)
  • Nina Sumbatova (Russian State University for the Humanities)
  • Jesse Wichers Schreur (University of Frankfurt)


Project description
:
The Caucasus has been known since antiquity as the “Mountain of tongues” and as a unique area of linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity. The investigation of this diversity through linguistic data is the goal of this project. We are building up a comprehensive lexical database of the languages of the Caucasus. It will contain the following information for every lexeme: transcription (IPA, standard orthography), precise English translation, grammatical information, audio recording, and metadata. The database will be open-access and presented by means of a website that will also contain maps of the region.

During the second stage of the project we will use quantitative statistical and phylogenetic tools for inferring the origins, dispersal and timing of the expansions of the Caucasian languages and evaluate the results in comparison with the existing literature (e.g. Nikolayev & Starostin 1994, Koryakov 2006). A key component will be to employ cutting-edge phylogeographic models to infer the geographic patterning of the underlying expansions through the region. In addition, our study will allow for a very detailed representation of linguistic data that allows us to apply pioneering techniques for sequence comparison, high-level annotation, including full and partial cognates inside and across the same concepts in our dataset, and will in this way also contribute to cross-disciplinary studies by integrating, for example, the names that the languages give to the physical objects to artifacts in archaeological records, or early attestations of domestication.

The project is conducted by Oleg Belyaev and Diana Forker. The project closely cooperates with the Department of Linguistic and Cultural Evolution at the MPI for the Science of Human History in Jena (DLCE), in particular with Prof. Russel Gray, Dr. Cormac Anderson, Dr. Mattis List and Dr. Simon Greenhill. In October 2019, Ilya Chechuro will join the team as an associated a PhD student from the International Max Planck Research School for the Science of Human History (IMPRS-SHH).

At the moment, an international consortium of experts is gathering data for East Caucasian and West Caucasian languages. In the first expert workshop on April 12–13, 2018, around 20 researchers from the Caucasus, Moscow, the UK and Germany participated. The second workshop took place June 5–7, 2019. The third workshop is scheduled for spring of 2020.

Documenting Dargwa languages in Daghestan – Shiri and Sanzhi Show content

Project leader:
Prof. Dr. Diana Forker

Project members:
Prof. Dr. Rasul Mutalov
Dr. Oleg Belyaev
Dr. Iwona Kaliszewska

Student assistants:
André Müller
Felix Anker
Teresa Klemm

Funding:
Volkswagenstiftung (2012–2019)

Project Homepage

Project description:
In this project, three linguists (Diana Forker, Rasul Mutalov and Oleg Belyaev) and one ethnographer (Iwona Kaliszewska) document and analyze Shiri and Sanzhi and the culture of the Shiri and Sanzhi people. Shiri and Sanzhi belong to two different Dargwa languages (East Caucasian), spoken in the central part of Daghestan in the Caucasus (Russian Federation). The languages are heavily endangered. We estimate that there are only about 200 Shiri families and about 50 Sanzhi families.

In the linguistic documentation and analysis of Shiri and Sanzhi we pay special attention to those features that are unusual for the East Caucasian language family and of broader typological interest. Two of these features are person agreement, which is based on the person hierarchy and not determined by grammatical roles, and extraordinarily rich tense/aspect/mood and evidentiality paradigms.

The project provides a detailed and in-depth documentation of Shiri and Sanzhi through the collection of texts from a wide range of genres. At the moment, Diana Forker is finalizing a comprehensive grammar of Sanzhi Dargwa and Oleg Belyaev is working on a grammar of Shiri Dargwa. Forker and Belyaev have also compiled electronic dictionaries of both languages that are available through the project website.

Major publications

  • A sketch grammar of Sanzhi by Diana Forker, preprint available on Academia
  • Forker, Diana. 2019. Elevation as a category of grammar: Sanzhi Dargwa and beyond. Linguistic Typology 23(1), 59–106. access online
  • Forker, 2018. Diana. Sanzhi-Russian code switching and the Matrix Language Frame Model. International Journal of Bilingualism. access online
  • A grammar of Sanzhi by Diana Forker, to be published with Language Science Press access online

Other materials

  • Sanzhi-English-Russian electronic dictionary with almost 5,500 entries, published with dictionaria
  • Sanzhi corpus (analyzed, glossed, partially translated, around 44,000 tokens)
  • Diana Forker & Gadzhimuard Gadzhimuradov. 2017. Sanzhi tales and legends. With a Sanzhi-Russian and a Russian-Sanzhi dictionary. Makhachkala. [In Russian] download book [pdf 18MB]
  • Iwona Kaliszewska (in collaboration with Agnieszka Krzyk and Iwa Kołodziejska). 2019. Plants from the village of Shiri, Dagestan. [In Russian] download book [pdf 35MB]
Language contact in the Caucasus Show content

Project leader:
Prof. Dr. Diana Forker

Cooperation partners:
Prof. Dr. Lenore Grenoble, U Chicago
Dr. Zaira Khalilova, Russian Academy of Science
Dr. Zarina Molochieva, Universität Kiel

Period:
2019–2024

Funding:
Heisenberg-Fellowship by the German Research Foundation (DFG)

Project description:
Language contact is important for researching human history because languages can preserve traces of contact that even thousands of years later can give us hints about migration histories. The project focuses on the functional and structural constraints of language contact between pairs of languages in asymmetrical contact situations, more specifically between Russian and East Caucasian languages (in particular Hinuq, Bezhta, Sanzhi Dargwa and Chechen). The aim of the project is to systematically study language contact phenomena from a structural as well as from a sociolinguistic perspective. The project will draw on methods that have successfully been used for the study of contact and bilingualism between large speech communities such as English-Spanish or English-Russian. It consists in controlled questionnaire studies and experiments (translation tasks, story retelling) as well as corpus studies to ensure that we simultaneously investigate comparable data and data from natural corpora.

The project will have broader implications for language contact studies, historical linguistics and areal typology beyond the field of Caucasian studies. General research questions to be studied are:

  • Which features play decisive roles when diverse languages are in contact with the same dominant language (Russian)?
  • Is the outcome similar or do we find differences that can be explained by diverging sociolinguistic situations or typological and genetic differences?
  • Which areas of ancient and recent contact zones in the Caucasus can we identify through the systematic study of the core vocabulary?
  • What does this tell us about cultural and political developments?
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